Operational risk learning experience model
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Operational risk learning experience 1
The company has organized and participated in training on risks, especially operational risks. As the personnel of regional business departments, operational risks are no stranger to us. But if we can clearly understand the various situations of operational risks, I am afraid few people dare to say so, It can be said that the staff of various positions in the region once again deeply learned and understood the relevant knowledge from the process to the practical application of operational risk, and further consolidated a concept that was known but not proficient in operational risk in mind.
Theoretically, operational risk can be divided into four categories: operational risk caused by human factors, operational risk caused by process factors, operational risk caused by system factors and operational risk caused by external events. The operational risks caused by personnel factors include operational errors, illegal behaviors (internal fraud / collusion), violation of construction methods, loss of key personnel, etc. The operational risk caused by process factors can be divided into two situations: unreasonable process design and lax process implementation. The operational risk caused by system factors includes system failure and system vulnerability. The operational risk caused by external events mainly refers to external fraud, emergencies and adverse changes in the operating environment of banks.
Among them, the operational risks only include operational errors, illegal behaviors, ultra vires behaviors caused by personnel factors, and the process execution of operational risks caused by process factors is not strict. Obviously, operational risk can not be equal to operational risk, although operational risk is the most frequent and the highest proportion of operational risk. Statistics show that operational risk accounts for 70% of the total. As mentioned above, this narrow definition of operational risk as operational risk often makes the operational risk management system based on this understanding unable to cover all operational risks, thus making it difficult for relevant financial institutions with banks as the main body to prevent the impact of those emergencies.
This paper also refers to an article of Huaxia Bank on "exploring the law of the occurrence of operational risk in current commercial banks". It also makes an analysis on the characteristics of some of the most frequent operational risks mentioned in the article, and thinks that it is of certain reference significance. Here, I would like to make a simple analysis on the relevant contents of the training and the current situation of the company's car business.
Through the centralized verification of special governance of cases with credit business as the main content carried out by Huaxia Bank. It is found that the examination and approval link is still the most risky part of the bank credit business, and the lack of guarantee measures is the prominent risk point.
(1) the "point probability" of risk is high. The operational risk of some accounting and other daily business has the characteristics of zero point probability. Improper control of any risk point in each link of credit business may lead to risk independently. For example, the customer manager's pre loan investigation is not true, there is no two person on-the-spot inspection, and the post loan inspection is mere formality; The loan process did not strictly implement the loan review committee resolution, mortgage and pledge registration was not completed.
From this point of view, at present, we are controlling the operational risk. On the one hand, the car business department of our company has adopted the way of checking the quality of the customer manager by the review to supervise the authenticity and standardization of the customer manager's pre loan investigation, On the other hand, through regular internal inspection, we can further verify the work in the past stage from the regional level to ensure the quality of relevant work. In addition, the current normal post loan inspection has carried out effective and substantive inspection by means of telephone communication with customers and retrieving the latest credit reports of customers and checking them one by one, so as to avoid the inspection becoming mere formality.
Finally, as far as the authenticity of mortgage registration is concerned, all mortgage vehicles have been inquired on a monthly basis to avoid and control the possibility of relevant operational risks to a certain extent. In addition, our company has set up an independent loan audit department to carry out daily settlement and lending operations. In case of non-compliance with the system, the event report of the relevant superior department or the minutes of the meeting of the risk management committee should be used as the essential elements of the loan. It is impossible to make loans without following the normal process or compliance procedures. Of course, there are also some shortcomings, including that although the work of the customer manager is supervised through the review, there is no way to further check and restrict the work related to the review. But on the whole, in the current relevant links of our company, we can avoid the occurrence of such risks to a certain extent.
(2) measurable but hidden. In the credit business, the amount of the contract object between the bank and the customer is determined, so the maximum amount of single loss is measurable, but it has certain secret characteristics. In the initial stage, there may be some problems of violation of the contract, and there is no big risk. However, when these problems lurk to the stage of repayment or recovery, they may become insufficient in the legal effect of the contract text and cause loan losses.
In view of this, with the development of our business, many versions of contracts have been modified since the business was carried out. At present, the contract versions used at present have basically explained and explained the relevant situations before, during and after the loan, rights and obligations, etc. from the repayment of the current period and the settlement and collection of non-performing assets, No loan loss caused by the legal effect of the relevant provisions has been found.
(3) early warning. Generally, there are signs and warning signals in advance for the risk of credit business, and the suddenness is weak. In accordance with certain systems, methods and procedures, banks can make timely identification and early warning of risks by closely monitoring the status of borrowers, guarantors and collateral, as well as tracking and analyzing the external market environment.
Many people equate operational risk with operational risk or operational risk. This kind of misunderstanding often leads to another wrong understanding, that is, the internal audit department of operational risk management knowledge has nothing to do with other departments, and thus the responsibility of operational risk management is improperly assigned to the internal audit department.
This situation is by no means a minority in the domestic banking industry. This is a big mistake. First of all, from the composition of the bank's internal control system, the internal audit department belongs to the evaluation and supervision link of the internal control mechanism. In other words, the responsibility of the Department is to supervise the risk management of the bank and evaluate its effectiveness, rather than directly participate in the risk management. If the responsibility of operational risk management is entrusted to the internal audit department, it will lead to the conflict of the Department's responsibilities, which will lead to the failure of risk management in fact.
Secondly, the practice of foreign risk management shows that effective risk management needs not only an independent management department, but also the support of various business departments. Only in this way can we ensure the organic combination of independence and professionalism of risk management. If the operational risk management is given to the internal audit department separately, it is considered that it has nothing to do with other departments, so as to exclude other departments, which can only lead to the low professionalism of operational risk management, and the risks of many professional banks may not be found. Finally, according to the definition of operational risk, operational risk is a very broad category.
Therefore, operational risk management will also involve many departments, such as security department, science and Technology Department, logistics department, etc. This will inevitably lead to the need for coordination between departments. Obviously, internal audit alone is not enough. Foreign banks often set up a committee, which is composed of various departments involved in operational risk, to coordinate some cross sectoral issues. From the above situation, the misconception that "operational risk management is only the matter of internal audit department and has nothing to do with other departments" is very dangerous.
(4) sustained release. Once the risk of accounting business is exposed, it is difficult to recover the loss. However, for the risk of credit business, the bank can usually take a variety of ways, such as extension, borrowing new to repay the old, asset restructuring and other ways to slow down and move forward the risk, and to deal with and resolve the risk by means of debt repayment and asset transfer.
Combined with the above situation, the prevention of operational risk can start from the following aspects:
First, strengthen operational risk management and internal control. It includes the staff's view of operational risk, internal control awareness of operational risk and professional ethics of operational risk management. The bank's senior management should understand the main operational risks of the bank.
Second, to build a comprehensive risk management model and a complete and independent operational risk management system. Instead of focusing on single risk management, we should combine credit risk, interest rate risk, liquidity risk, operational risk and other risks, as well as various financial assets including these risks.
Third, establish and improve operational risk identification and evaluation system and complete internal control information response mechanism. Fourth, integrate and optimize the business process, implement the standardization and standardization of internal control management.
Operational risk learning experience 2
According to the guidelines for operational risk management of commercial banks, operational risk is the risk of loss caused by imperfect or problematic internal procedures, employees, information technology systems, and external events. Business units are the first line of defense against operational risk. Therefore, we must do everything possible to control the risk in an acceptable range.
First, people-oriented, strengthen the construction and management of accounting team,
From the case analysis of domestic and foreign commercial banks caused by operational risk in recent years, it can be seen that personnel factor is the main factor of operational risk, which is manifested in operational errors, failure to follow rules, weak service awareness and weak risk awareness. As a result, our branch has been taking the accounting personnel management as the focus of sub branch management. Strictly control the operational risk, achieve the combination of self supervision, mutual supervision and department supervision, and operate in compliance with the regulations, and try to ensure that everything is safe.
1. Pay attention to the training work, so that the probability of new employees' operation risk is greatly reduced
The accounting team of our sub branch is characterized by a large proportion of young employees, lack of social and professional experience, and weak awareness of risk prevention and control. For this. On the one hand, we teach business knowledge and skills through the form of master's apprenticeship, and at the same time, we teach the business risk prevention experience that is prone to occur; On the other hand, we achieve the purpose of warning through case analysis to strengthen the risk prevention awareness of employees. We compile the risk tips issued by the branch accounting department and the cases issued by the head office and branches into a volume, organize the staff to conduct in-depth analysis and study, guide the staff to exchange learning experience, strengthen the staff's concept of right and wrong, so as to let the new employees understand the consequences of doing so and the corresponding losses, so as to reduce the possibility of operational risk of new employees. Through the above methods, we can ensure that our new employees have certain business skills and risk prevention awareness before taking up their posts, which is reflected in low error rate, fast growth of tellers and low probability of operational risk.
2. The post setting is matched with the personnel ability, and the potential operation risk is low.
On the one hand, our sub branch comprehensively considered the staff's business ability, professional quality and work experience, and carried out personnel allocation for each post according to the new core post requirements. On the other hand, our sub branch has actively explored effective business training forms, innovated personnel quality improvement means, and formulated training and assessment on the business knowledge and operation skills of different groups such as high counter post, low counter post and general accountant according to the new operation mode under the new core, so as to continuously improve the professional quality of accountants. At present, the employees in each position can better complete their own responsibilities, play their own roles in their own posts, and reduce the possibility of their own operational risks.
3. Persistently pay attention to the ideological construction of employees and keep the staff team relatively stable
Staff oriented, the sub branch actively creates conditions for employees from the aspects of work, life and logistics, so as to create good working and living conditions for employees, protect the rights and interests of employees, and avoid the worries of employees, so that employees can concentrate on risk prevention and control. At the same time, we regularly observe the ideological dynamics of employees, help them face mental pressure correctly, give timely psychological guidance through heart to heart talks, and sincerely give positive suggestions to employees' career planning, guide them to face their work with a sunny mind and prevent job burnout. Through our efforts, we have created a team of accountants who are strict in discipline, hard in style and good at fighting.
At present, the accounting team of the sub branch is relatively stable. The staff can consciously resist the bad phenomena in the society, and consciously resist the invasion of bad ideas from the outside world, thus fundamentally eliminating the operational risk of accounting positions.
Second, promote the construction of internal control and actively build a long-term mechanism for risk prevention and control
1. Separation control of incompatible jobs is implemented, and the operation risk is low
In accordance with the new core post setting requirements, the bank determined important posts and incompatible posts, strengthened the post supervision and restriction mechanism, and implemented the internal control requirements of independent and mutually restricted posts. It is strictly prohibited for one person to hold a non compatible post or complete the business operation of the whole accounting process by himself.
2. Implementation of hierarchical authorization approval control, low operational risk
Implement the branch hierarchical authorization method, sort out all businesses, implement hierarchical authorization, and implement collective decision-making by the management team for major business and matters, and no individual is allowed to make decisions alone.
3. Highlighting the role of total accounting, effectively reducing the possibility of operational risk.
Our sub branch pays attention to highlighting the role of the general accountant and requires the general accountant to review the business of high and low tellers in real time. Even if business problems are found, the doubts should be clarified. This kind of real-time and comprehensive business supervision can play a role in at least two aspects. First, it forms a strong sense of being urged on the front desk tellers, which can significantly strengthen the sense of crisis of front desk tellers, so as to handle business more prudently; Secondly, once the business risk occurs, the timely discovery of the general accountant can bring twice the result with half the effort and effectively reduce the possibility of operational risk.
4. Implement mutual restriction and supervision among posts, and effectively control the occurrence of operational risks in charge
On the one hand, the business manager and the chief accountant supervise and restrict each other in the authorization of high-risk business and special business; On the one hand, the president in charge supervises and controls the business manager and the general accountant in the authorization of high-risk business and special business, which well inhibits the occurrence of operational risk of the supervisor himself.
Third, optimize internal process management to effectively reduce operational risk
1. Improve the standard operation process and effectively reduce the operational risk
In recent years, according to the 13 risk nodes such as the stock in and out of the mortgage and pledge goods issued by the branch recently, and compared with the relevant business operation process of the branch, we have carried out a comprehensive carding,. Some of these processes are adjusted, and the 13 business processes are further standardized, which improves the standardization of the operation process and reduces the operational risk caused by the operation process.
2. Implement the system of centralized processing of high-risk business with low counter and separation of front and back office of high-risk business to effectively reduce operational risk
Operational risk comes from daily operation and work process. When there is contradiction between operation system and external environment, the frequency of operational risk will increase. In recent years, one of the main reasons for the frequent outbreak of the operational risk of temporary counter business in domestic banks is the contradiction between the operation process under the old system and the rapid change of the financial market. The applicability of the original internal control is rapidly reduced, and the operational risk is rising. Recently, the high-risk business issued by the branch is centralized by low-risk counter, and the separation system of high-risk business front-end and back-end is separated. The concept of risk management is introduced and the process reengineering of temporary counter business is implemented. On the one hand, the centralized operation of low-risk business by low-risk staff is realized, On the one hand, it greatly reduces the risk triggering opportunities of temporary counter business personnel of business institutions. Therefore, according to the system requirements, our sub branch quickly changed the sub branch's operation process and effectively improved the operation risk management ability of the whole bank's temporary counter accounting.
Fourth, strengthen the system construction and consolidate the management foundation
Constantly improve the management system to prevent the occurrence of operational risk. On the one hand, improve the executive power of personnel. The system of iron is compatible with the executive power of iron, and the existing systems of the superior bank, including behavior investigation, integral management, regular risk meeting, post exchange, compulsory leave and so on, must be fully implemented. On the other hand, improve the working mechanism. Combined with their own reality, we should constantly supplement and improve the relevant system and incentive and restraint mechanism construction of case prevention and control, and constantly improve the assessment and evaluation mechanism of case prevention and control, with rewards and penalties. For example, we should carry out activities that are easy to implement, easy to operate and easy to assess, such as "no error in 10000 business transactions" and "no error in 100 days", highlight the positive incentive role of the mechanism, and effectively mobilize the enthusiasm and initiative of all levels to do a good job in the prevention and control of cases.
At present, the problems and Countermeasures of operational risk
1. Insufficient execution
First, they are simple and casual, they don't understand the policies of the higher authorities comprehensively, and they don't carry out the relevant operation regulations seriously, and even have some countermeasures under the policies; The second is to copy mechanically, say one thing and do one thing. In form, we must carry out firmly, but in fact, we should go slow; The third is passive coping, lacking enthusiasm, initiative, creativity and foresight; Fourth, the work is not specific, not in-depth, not solid, and only talks about principles, not refinement; Fifthly, it's very hard to grasp at the beginning, but it's very tiring at the later stage. It lacks stamina and can't be persistent.
Countermeasures: in the process of compiling the "operation process", focus on the weak links that are prone to problems in the implementation of the system and methods, organically combine the operation process with the responsibilities of each post, and make detailed and clear regulations on the positions, personnel involved, processes and responsibilities to be performed for each business and each link, The operation has been followed, the implementation has the responsibility, and the management has the basis.
Secondly, refine the operation requirements into the process. In order to highlight the practical characteristics of simple and easy operation of business process, the policy business process and commercial business process are separately compiled and classified, and the operation chart is introduced. If there is a specific process, there is a clear operation flow chart and various business texts involved, which highlights the guidance and intuition, so that the specific operators have a more comprehensive and specific understanding and grasp of the overall business process, which is convenient for all post personnel to learn and implement
2. Lack of sense of belonging and responsibility
Because most of the post-80s employees are born in the group, the exposed problems are lack of sense of responsibility and pay more attention to their own business. They are not considering problems from the perspective of the whole branch, and problems are easy to occur in the links. For example, in the process of handover, only the business itself is handed over, and there is no risk ring node of the business, so there is potential operational risk.
Countermeasures: by setting up a and B posts, strengthening the training and training of alternative posts, and strengthening the internal rotation of sub branches, so that the tellers of substitute B posts can better undertake the work of a post; In addition, to cultivate the sense of responsibility and team spirit of employees, a business is often more concerned about, the risk can be avoided. The front line itself has the characteristics of fast pace, high risk and high requirements for the comprehensive quality of employees. As a manager, it stresses on ways and means, which can be recognized by employees, listen to the opinions and suggestions of employees to the maximum extent, so that employees have a sense of belonging. At the same time, it should be supplemented by strong ideological and political work, pay attention to employees, care for employees, care for employees, create a home atmosphere, and enhance their centripetal force and cohesion.
3. Employees are not proficient in new business
In view of the diversification of product types and business scope, employees are not proficient in new business, so they can not accurately grasp the operational risk point in their work.
Countermeasures: in this regard, managers should carry out solid and effective training for new business and new process, adopt morning meeting, risk analysis meeting, sampling test, practical operation and other methods to test the learning effect of employees flexibly, so as to make new employees really learn and make use of them.
4. The adaptability is not strong, and it is easy to expand the operational risk
Some staff encounter operational problems, due to lack of experience, often in a hurry, so it is easy to expand the operational risk.
Countermeasures: carry out emergency drills regularly, master the handling method and reporting process of emergencies, actively communicate with each other in case of emergencies, even if reporting, control the development of the situation and reduce the scope of knowledge.
5. In terms of system risk, there are signs of job burnout
First, the system needs more authorization business, which is prone to burnout; Second, objectively, the new system also has operational risks.
Countermeasures: managers should strengthen their sense of responsibility and supervise each other. At the same time, through learning the risk tips issued, strengthen their own audit judgment when doing business, gradually adapt to the new system, and reduce the manipulation risk caused by system reasons.
6. Insufficient information exchange and feedback
In the information society, the information exchange and feedback between the grass-roots units and posts are not smooth enough, the mutual communication is less, and the feedback is not timely.
Countermeasures: in order to establish a more effective risk feedback mechanism, our sub branch will implement two-line feedback. One is the traditional straight-line feedback mode of teller chief accountant business section chief executive president; The second is the teller or chief accountant, which is a quick vertical feedback mechanism for the business section chief or the president in charge. The establishment of a two-line bottom-up operational risk reporting mechanism, the summary and analysis of operational risk events, the realization of operational risk identification, assessment, monitoring and control of closed-loop management, is conducive to the timely detection and summary of potential operational risks, and the formation of operational risk feedback improvement mechanism. Find out the weak links and potential risks of operational risk management, give risk tips, and put forward management opinions, which can effectively improve the level of operational risk identification and analysis.
In the past year, although our sub branch has done some work in the operational risk prevention of business counters, there is still a big gap between the head office's requirements on building a modern bank and the advanced experience of other brother banks. In the next step, we should continue to work hard in accordance with the relevant work requirements of the head office, and learn the good experience and good practices of brother banks with an open mind, We should conscientiously supplement and improve the operation process and other mechanisms, strengthen the supervision and inspection, strengthen the execution of the risk management system, ensure the implementation of the operation process, and push the risk prevention to a new level.
one Paper on bank operational risk management
two On the operational risk management of China's banks
three Research Report on operational risk of bank counter
four Experience of efficient classroom learning
five Teacher's morality and style of study
six About environmental protection study experience experience model article reference
seven On summer teachers' learning experience
eight Experience and experience of teachers' ethics training
nine Experience of safety accident learning